For most of us, off-road travel requires electrical power for an ever-increasing number of electrical devices.
There’s the fridge-freezer, of course. But also, a laptop (or two), GPS receiver, two-way radios, air compressors, air pump (for mattresses), power tools, and such.
Power consumption isn’t an issue while the engine is running: The alternator keeps the battery charged up. However, if you plan to stay in camp for several days, a constant drain on the battery can leave you unable to start the vehicle or run devices. A solar power system keeps the deep cycle battery charged up. Keep in mind, a typical lead acid battery discharged too low can shorten its life. Thus it is better to keep it charged up.
Important components of a solar panel charging system
Let’s look at the components of a typical solar charging system. While this topic can be very technical, I won’t go too deep. Even so, you will develop a solid understanding and feel comfortable buying the necessary components. Check out the internet if you need more on this topic.
The solar arrangement discussed here is designed to charge a deep cycle battery.
Solar panel: There are two types of solar technology, monocrystalline and polycrystalline. Mono panels look black while poly cells have a bluish color. Mono panels are 15 -20% more efficient. Therefore, their footprint is slightly smaller for the same wattage. Either style should last for at least 25 years if properly cared for. Check the size and weight difference to see if mono or poly makes a difference for your application.
Solar panels come framed or foldable. Framed panels weigh more and take up more space when stored. The foldable style is easier to store, but may not be as durable. How you plan to use a solar panel will influence which format is better for you.
A typical 100-watt mono framed panel is about 21 inches by 46 inches and weighs around 35 pounds. A 100-watt foldable can be folded to about 21 inches by 21 inches and weighs just under 8 pounds.
Brands to consider
I have purchased panels from Ramsond and Renogy. Each has a 25-year warranty on the rated power output. All four companies are reputable brands. I tend to rely on Powerwerx for accessories, wire and connectors.
Controller: A 100-watt solar panel produces energy at a higher voltage than batteries can handle. A controller is required to regulate this energy and keeps the battery from over charging.
Controllers perform this using one of two processes, PWM (pulse width modulation) or MPPT (maximum power point tracking). You don’t need to know the science behind these processes. Either type will work well for your application. MPPT controllers, which are more expensive, tend to squeeze more power out but are only worthwhile if you have two or more panels. I have been very happy with the inexpensive PWM controllers. I recommend you buy two controllers. The second one is a backup and can also be fitted to provide you flexibility to charge stray batteries (like your buddy’s car battery).
A PWM controller costs $20 to $30, while an MPPT unit runs $80 to $100.
Connectors: Solar panels use MC4 connectors. Remember to buy a bag of MC4 connectors with the other gear. You will need at least one pair (male and female) to connect to the panel. Once you have that connection, I recommend you use Anderson power poles for your other connections, unless you need the water tight protection the MC4 affords. MC4 connections are a bit more difficult to work with. Some foldable panels assume you will not need the watertight properties and are being supplied with other types of connectors.
Additional items to buy include an extension cord at least 30 feet long, a stand for the solar panel, and wire to connect the controller to the battery. Install the controller in your vehicle and wired directly to the battery. This allows for convenient connections between the solar panel and the controller.
Positioning the solar panel
This chart has influenced how I think about deploying a solar panel. It provides the average results for four strategies for deploying the panel. It also shows the difference between winter, spring/fall and summer sun.
- Straight up – meaning the panel is lying flat.
- Perfect tracking – constant rotation and elevation to face the sun.
- Repositioning the panel every two hours to face into the sun and adjust the elevation.
- Placing the panel in the ideal location for noon and leaving it there all day.
How you position the solar panel determines its effectiveness. Reviewing the options above:
- Mount on top of the vehicle. I don’t recommend this, because the panel will take up valuable cargo space unless you have a Hummer. Plus, the vehicle would always have to be parked in a sunny spot. That could be challenging in a wooded area. Also, parking in the sun warms the interior of the vehicle, causing the refrigerator to work harder (among other issues).
- The second option entails a surface mount and repositioning every two hours. Place the panel on the ground (or other surface) at the proper azimuth and elevation. Reposition the panel’s azimuth and elevation every two hours to maximize the energy collection. Ideal if you plan to be in camp all day.
- If you’ll be away all day, say on a hike, position the panel so that it will be in direct sunlight at noon. That way it will receive pretty good exposure from late morning into early afternoon.
- Attach the solar panel to a rotator. The panel automatically tracks the sun throughout the day. This is the most effective process but entails the added cost, weight, and space of the rotator.
You’ll note that options 2, 3 and 4 allow you to park the car in the shade. Remember to pack an extension cord. Fit the extension cord with Anderson power poles for easy connect and disconnect. Use it to connect the solar panel to the controller, which is kept in the vehicle attached to the battery.
My recommendation for a solar panel charging system
To help you get started, I recommend a framed or foldable 100-watt mono panel with a PWM controller. Add in the MC4 connectors and an extension cord, and you’re looking at something under $200 for the package. Of course, if you don’t own a deep cycle battery, you’ll need to buy that too.
Armed with the information from this article, you can now design your own solar charging station. And start enjoying the benefits that solar power offers for an outdoor adventure.
# # #
Did you miss the previous articles?
Since you might have a lot of time on your hands, I expanded the list this month.
- 2020-04-15 Great Time to Catch Up on Projects
- 2020-04-06 COVID-19 Won’t Conquer Us
- 2020-03-23 Don’t Be A Fool, Stop For Fuel!
- 2020-02-26 What’s The Name Of Your 4-Wheel Drive Vehicle?
- 2020-01-21 Tough Love
- 2019-12-12 6 Nifty Gifts for the Outdoors Person in Your Life
- 2019-11-14 Inspect Your Vehicle “ 100 Times+
- 2019-10-13 Are You Keyed UP?
- 2019-09-22 Where is Your Winch Controller?
- 2019-08-30 Be a Guest-Focused Trail Leader
- 2019-07-24 Items That Don’t Belong on a 4WD Trip
- 2019-06-14 Refresh Your First-Aid Kit
- 2019-05-20 Ham Radio Use Off-Road
- 2019-04-25 Four Wheeling Fears
- 2019-03-21 Safeguard Gear, Food from Varmints, Vagrants and Weather
- 2019-02-13 Do You Have a Tire Failure Strategy?
- 2019-01-16 How to Make Great Beef Jerky
Some Upcoming Events (click on the link for details)
We have cancelled everything for the last half of March and all of April and May. We are playing it by ear as to when we can resume clinics and events. Hungry Valley State Vehicle Recreation Area has advised us that they will be shut down beyond our planned date for a June class using the park.
If you are interested in a class or event sign up on the waiting list if it shows out of stock or email us to express interest. We will let you know when we are able to hold the event.
Did you get around to cleaning, sorting and fixing your vehicle? How about your workbench?
If , as a result, you discovered that you need a better solution for the tools you carry off-road, we have a tool bag/ tool roll solution. It is very reasonably priced and on sale now.
and buy the black bag to put the whole works into.
San Rafael Swell Off Road Guide Book & Companion Map $38.50
We have been selling quite a few of this guide book. There are only 6 left. I assume everyone is planning to get out of town as soon as the Stay in Place orders are relaxed.
If you want to order:
At almost 300 pages, San Rafael Swell Off Road: A Trail Guide to 42 Destinations for Automobiles, 4WD Trucks & ATVs is a guide to the in the San Rafael Swell area of Emery County. The desert area is ringed by small towns like Price, Green River and Castle Dale.
Every chapter includes helpful advice for novice or experienced explorers of the area, such as, Easy dirt road for high clearance automobile, although four-wheel drive is recommended to several sandy sections along the road. according to Ed Helmick the author.
the San Rafael Swell area of south-central Utah. This is an area that provides approximately 2,000 square miles of fantastic scenery, fascinating history, and fun off-road adventures. The only paved roads in the San Rafael Swell are Interstate 70, which bisects the Swell in an east-west direction for 67 miles, and a spur of I-70 called the Moore Cutoff. The major difference between off-roading in the Moab area and the Swell area is fewer people, and the area is more remote in regard to the distances to small towns with services. Utah towns that ring the Swell are: Price, Green River, Hanksville, Cainsville, Emery, Castle Dale, Huntington, and Cleveland.
The companion map, the National Geographic San Rafael Swell (#712) comes as a package deal with your book order.
I hope to see you on the trails!
Tom Severin, President Badlands Off Road Adventures, Inc.
4-Wheel Drive School
Make it Fun. Keep it Safe.
If you find this information valuable, please pass it on to a friend. You can forward them the email. If you received a forwarded copy of this newsletter and would like to subscribe for yourself, go to: www.4x4training.com/w/contact-us.html and follow the instructions to join our mail list.
Want to Use This Article In Your Magazine, E-Zine, Club Newsletter Or Web Site? You are welcome to use it anytime, just be sure to include the following author/copyright information: Tom Severin, 4Ã—4 Coach, teaches 4WD owners how to confidently and safely use their vehicles to the fullest extent in difficult terrain and adverse driving conditions. Visit www.4x4training.com to develop or improve your driving skill.
Copyright 2020, Badlands Off-Road Adventures, Inc.